Saturday, 13 December 2014

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

Conditional Sentence


Conditions deal with imagined situations: some are possible, some are unlikely, some are impossible. The speaker/writer imagines that something can or cannot happen or have happened, and then compares that situation with possible consequences or outcomes, or offers further logical conclusions about the situation.[1]

In general, the form of Conditional is:
if + condition, result/consequence

result/consequence + if + condition

1.   Conditional Sentence Type 0

Conditional type zero is used to talk about general truths, scientific facts or things which always happen under certain conditions.

General Form:

If + Simple Present, + Simple Present

 

if/when + condition, result/consequence
if/when + simple present, simple present

result/consequence + if/when + condition
simple present + if/when + simple present

 

Use:

The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, scientific facts, general truths:
Examples:
·         If we burn paper, it becomes ash.
·         Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air.
·         the equilibrium between liquid and vapor is upset if the temperature is increased.
·         kalimat
Contoh Zero Conditional
(+)
If I sleep late, I am sleepy at work. [habitual activity]
If you dry fruits or vegetables, they loss their nutrient and calorie.
(-)
If one doesn’t drink after doing exercise, one gets dehydrated.
(?)
If we burn paper, does it becomes ash?

2.   Conditional Sentence Type 1

Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real or possible situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met. It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled. Therefore, we can conclude that conditional type 1 describes a possible situation of present or future time.[2]

General Form:

If + Simple Present, + Simple Future

 

if + condition, result/consequence

result/consequence + if + condition
(will + bare infinitive) /  imperative + if + simple present

Use:

Conditional Sentences Type 1 refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we think it is likely to happen.

Example:
·         If I meet himI will introduce myself.
·         If I have enough time, I'll watch the football match.
·         I may have time to watch the match but I'm not sure about it.

Kalimat
Contoh conditional type 1
(+)
If I have free time, I will go swimming.
If the bell rings, I’ll go home.
If you meet Andy, ask him to call me. [Imperative]
(-)
If you don’t finish your homework, your teacher will be angry.
If he doesn’t come, I won’t be angry. / Unless he comes, I won’t be angry.
If he comes, I won’t be angry.
(?)
If they invite you, will you come?

3.   Conditional Sentence Type 2

Often called the "unreal" conditional because it is used for unreal impossible or improbable situations. This conditional provides an imaginary result for a given situation. It is very unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled. So, we can conclude that conditional type 2 describes a hypothical situation, one that is either contrary to the real facts of the present, or unlikely to occur in the future.[3]

General Form:

if + Simple Past, + would + base verb

if + condition, result/consequence
if + simple past, would/could/might + bare infinitive



result/consequence + if + condition
would/could/might + bare infinitive + if + simple past

 

Were / Was

In conditional type 2, we usually use in the if clause "were" instead of "was" even if the pronoun is I, he, sheor it. "were" here is a subjunctive form.
NOTE "was" is also a possible form.
Example:
If I were a millionaire, I would buy a castle.
Kal.
Contoh Conditional type 2
Fact
(+)
If it rained tomorrow, I would sleep all day.
but I don’t have much hope it will rain
If Nisa studied hard, she would pass.
but Nisa doesn’t study hard
If I had much money, I would buy a sport car.
but I don’t have much money
If I were a millionaire, I would donate my money to charity.
but I’m not a millionaire
(-)
If Nisa didn’t study hard, she wouldn’t be passed.
but Nisa studies hard
If Nisa studied hard, she wouldn’t fail.
-
If Nisa didn’t study hard, she would fail.
atau
Unless Nisa studied hard, she would fail.
-
If I were a millionaire, I wouldn’t donate my money to charity.
-
(?)
If Nisa didn’t study hard, would she fail?
-
If I had much money, would I buy a sport car?
-
If I were a millionaire, would I donate my money to charity?
-

Use:

Conditional Sentences Type 2 refer to an action in the present that could happen if the present situation were different
Example:
If I had a lot of money, I would travel around the world.

4.   Conditional Sentence Type 3

It is impossible that the condition will be met because it refers to the past. It describes a hypothical situation of past time, one which did not occur.

General Form:

if + Past Perfect, + would + have + Past Participle

 

if + condition, result/consequence
if + past perfect, would/should/could/might have + past participle

result/consequence + if + condition
would/should/could/might have + past participle + if + past perfect

Use:

Conditional Sentences Type 3 refer to situations in the past. They express hypothetical results to past given situations.
Example:
·         If he had been careful, he wouldn't have had that terrible accident.
·         Sometimes in the past, he was careless. He drove so fast. So he had a terrible accident.
Kalimat
Contoh Conditional type 3
Fact
(+)
If you had remembered to invite me, I would have attended your party.
but you didn’t remember
If I had given the interviewer really good answers, I might have got a higher position than you.
but I didn’t give really good answers
(-)
If the waitress had been careful, she wouldn’t have broken many plates.
but the waitress wasn’t careful
(?)
If he had asked for forgiveness, would you have forgiven him?
but he didn’t ask for forgiveness

Things to remember

1.   The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a comma.
Examples:
·         "Phosphorus burns if you expose it to air."
·         "I will send her an invitation if I find her address."
·         "I would travel around the world if I had a million dollars."
·         "He wouldn't have had that terrible accident if he had been careful."
2.   Main clause and/or if clause might be negative.
Examples:
·         If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.
·         If he had been careful, he wouldn't have had an accident.

REFERENCES

R. Carter, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge Univ. Press. 2006.

Robert Khron, English Sentence Structure, The University of Michigan Press. 1970.
























[1] R. Carter, Cambridge Grammar of English. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006.

[2] Robert Khron, English Sentence Structure, (The University of Michigan Press, 1970), p. 257.

[3] Ibid.

1 comment:

  1. Ingin makalah yg ada pengertian, rumus, dan contohnya, tapi dalam bahasa inggris dan langsung diartikan ke bahasa Indonesia. Ada?

    ReplyDelete

sealkazzsoftware.blogspot.com resepkuekeringku.com