Thursday, 2 October 2014

MAKALAH SOUND SYSTEM OF LANGUAGES AND PHONOLOGICAL RULE

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Certainly, there is a relationship between the English sound system and the English spelling system.  However, the relationship between sound and spelling is neither straightforward nor obvious.  If it were,  many of us would spell more accurately than we do.  What is obvious is that the sounds of English are not the same as the letters of English. 
Although it is obvious in an intellectual sense that sounds and letters are not the same thing,  most students working through this appendix will on occasion make errors through mistaking sounds for letters.
The patterning found in the sound system of English is a reflection of  the physiology of the vocal tract.  The patterns of the English sound system  make sense in terms of how sounds are made (and, particularly, for vowels, how sounds are perceived).
            The basic principle involved is modification of the air flow.  When making a sound air moves through the vocal cords in larynx, through the throat, and on out through the mouth or nose.  As it moves,  the air flow is modified through vibrating the vocal cords, by opening (or not opening) the velum to let part of the flow go out through the nose, and by constricting the air flow partially or completely in the mouth.
            Once the English sound system is understood,  it becomes easier to make sense out of the spelling system of English and it becomes possible to make some sense out of the problems all students have learning to spell and out of the problems speakers of other languages have in learning to pronounce English.  [1]




CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION
A.    SOUND SYSTEM
English phonology is the sound system (phonology) of the English language, or the study of that system. Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect. In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (though not identical) phonological system.

B.     PHONOLOGICAL RULES
A phonological rule is a formal way of expressing a systematic phonological or morphophonological process or diachronic sound change in language. Phonological rules are commonly used in generative phonology as a notation to capture sound-related operations and computations the human brain performs when producing or comprehending spoken language. They may use phonetic notation or distinctive features or both.
John Goldsmith (1995) defines phonological rules as mappings between two different levels of sound representation[2] in this case, the abstract or underlying level and the surface level—and Bruce Hayes (2009) describes them as "generalizations" about the different ways a sound can be pronounced in different environments.[3] That is to say, phonological rules describe how a speaker goes from the abstract representation stored in their brain, to the actual sound they articulate when they speak. In general, phonological rules start with the underlying representation of a sound (the phoneme that is stored in the speaker's mind) and yield the final surface form, or what the speaker actually pronounces.[4] For example, the English plural -s may be pronounced as [s](in "cats"), [z] (in "cabs"), or as [əz] (in "buses"); these forms are all stored mentally as the same -s, but the surface pronunciations are derived through a phonological rule.[5]
Hayes (2009) lists the following characteristics that all phonological rules have in common:[6]
v Language specificity: A phonological rule that is present in one language may not be present in other languages, or even in all dialects of a given language.
v Productivity: Phonological rules apply even to new words. For example, if an English speaker is asked to pronounce the plural of the nonsense word "wug" (i.e. "wugs"), they pronounce the final s as [z], not [s], even though they have never used the word before. (This kind of test is called the wug test.)
v Untaught and unconscious: Speakers apply these rules without being aware of it, and they acquire the rules early in life without any explicit teaching.
v Intuitive: The rules give speakers intuitions about what words are "well-formed" or "acceptable"; if a speaker hears a word that does not conform to the language's phonological rules, the word will sound foreign or ill-formed.
Phonological rules can be roughly divided into four types:[7]
·        Assimilation: When a sound changes one of its features to be more similar to an adjacent sound. This is the kind of rule that occurs in the English plural rule described above—the -s becomes voiced or voiceless depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is voiced.
·        Dissimilation: When a sound changes one of its features to become less similar to an adjacent sound, usually to make the two sounds more distinguishable. This type of rule is often seen among people speaking a language that is not their native language, where the sound contrasts may be difficult.[8]
·        Insertion: When an extra sound is added between two others. This also occurs in the English plural rule: when the plural morpheme -s is added to "bus," "bus-s" would be unpronouncable, so a short vowel (the schwa, [ə]) is inserted between the two [s]s.
·        Deletion: When a sound, such as a stressless syllable or a weak consonant, is not pronounced; for example, most American English speakers do not pronounce the [d] in "handbag".


CHAPTER II
CONCLUSION

English phonology is the sound system (phonology) of the English language, or the study of that system. Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect. In general, however, the regional dialects of English share a largely similar (though not identical) phonological system.
A phonological rule is a formal way of expressing a systematic phonological or morphophonological process or diachronic sound change in language. Phonological rules are commonly used in generative phonology as a notation to capture sound-related operations and computations the human brain performs when producing or comprehending spoken language. They may use phonetic notation or distinctive features or both.

REFERENCES
Goldsmith, John A (1995). "Phonological Theory". In John A. Goldsmith. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Blackwell Publishers. P. 2.
Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. P. 26.
Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell.
Idsardi, William James (2 September 2003). "LING 101: Phonology". University of Delaware. pp. A Rule of English. Retrieved 7 March 2009
Idsardi, William James (2 September 2003). "LING 101: Phonology". University of Delaware. pp. The pronunciation of the English plural. Retrieved 7 March 2009
Schramm, Andreas (17 March 2001). "Lesson 9.2: Phonological Rules". Hamline University. Retrieved 7 March 2009.



[2] Goldsmith, John A (1995). "Phonological Theory". In John A. Goldsmith. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Blackwell Publishers. P. 2.
[3] Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. P. 26.
[4] Idsardi, William James (2 September 2003). "LING 101: Phonology". University of Delaware. pp. A Rule of English. Retrieved 7 March 2009
[5] Idsardi, William James (2 September 2003). "LING 101: Phonology". University of Delaware. pp. The pronunciation of the English plural. Retrieved 7 March 2009
[6] Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8411-3
[7] Schramm, Andreas (17 March 2001). "Lesson 9.2: Phonological Rules". Hamline University. Retrieved 7 March 2009.
[8] Ibid.

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