Friday, 3 October 2014

MAKALAH FRENCH CULTURE



CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
                                                                          
A.    Background
French culture formed by geography, history and influence of groups at home and abroad. France, especially Paris, has played an important role as a center of culture and art since the 17th century. From the late 19th century, the French also have played an important role in modern art, movies, fashion and food. The importance of French culture depends on economic interests, political and military French.[1]
French are so cold and arrogant. One way to deal with this is "parlez fran Vais " (spoke in French). French tend to believe that Americans are too friendly. In France, you will be more appreciated if you are able to be more calm. They tend to assume that an open friendly attitude is not good and less fun. In French restaurant the portions are served less than in other countries, and if we look at the French body posture is rather small, it may also be caused by the size of the meal. When eating(breakfast, lunch and dinner), the French always using a fork and knife, without a spoon. Spoon just to be used to drink soup. Most French people prefer meat to fish. The habits of French always drink coffee after having lunch and dinner. They do it twice a day. That is why there is a café or place to drink along the streets in Paris.
France are highy Individualism. They respect the freedom and responsibility of the individual and of the view that everything must be fought alone, and had to do all the work with hard struggle as a manifestation of individualism. It should be underlined that Individualism is not the same as self-centered or selfish, but Individualism focuses on the responsibilities and the rights and obligations of individuals .

B.     Problem Formulation
1.      The history of French
2.      French Cultures


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A.    History of French
The name "France" comes from the Latin Francia, which means "land of the Franks" or "Frankland". There are various theories of the origin of the name of Frank. One of them is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon which translated as javelin or lance as the throwing ax of the Franks was known as a francisca.
Other etymology is that in an ancient Germanic language, Frank means "free" as opposed to slave. This word is still used in French as franc, also used as a translation of "Frank" and the name of the local currency, to the use of the euro in the 2000s.
However, besides that, the word “France” comes from “Frank”, also possible that the word is derived from the name of Frank ethnicity, the relationship is Frank, as the ruling class, had the status of free citizens. In German, France is still called Frankreich, which means "Kingdom of the Franks ". To distinguish from the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne, Modern France is called Frankreich, while the Frankish Realm is called Frankenreich.
The word "Frank" had been used since the fall of Rome to the Middle Ages, from the appointment of Hugh Capet as the “King of Franks” (Rex Francorium) refers to the Kingdom of Francia, who later became France. The Capetian Kings were descended from the Robertines, who had produced two Frankish kings, and previously held the title of "Duke of the Franks" (dux Francorum). Frankish duchy encompassed most of modern northern France but because the royal power was sapped by regional prince the term was then applied to the royal demesne as shorthand. Until the end of the name is taken for the entire Kingdom as central power set for the entire kingdom.



B.     French Cultures
Indeed many ways to classify culture. Among sociologists generally agree that the content of culture can basically be divided into two components, namely the material culture and nonmaterial culture. For the first term seemed to all agree, while for the later, often also called immaterial culture. Bertrand gave the sense of 'material culture', as: "a culture of Things of Which includes those men have created and use the which have a tangible forms". While 'nonmaterial culture' as: "all those creations of man with he uses to explain and guide his actions, but with are not found except in his mind".[2]
In france cultures, there are material components such as transportation, food (french cuisine), litterature, sport, marianne, goverment and economy. Immaterial cultures are language, religion, architecture, greetings, gender, dimensions of cultures,, emotional dimensions, and motivation and leadership.

1.      Language
French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important languages after the Romance, ​​Spanish, and Portuguese. French is the language most widely spoken in the world in 11th. Until 1999, this language is spoken by more than 77 million people in the world as a native language and by 128 million more as a second language. French is also used as an official language or languages ​​of government by some communities and organizations, such as the European Union, the IOC, the UN, and FIFA.

2.      Religion
France is a secular country which is freedom of religion is a constitutional right, although some religious organizations like Scientology, Children of God, the Unification Church, and Order of the Solar Temple are considered as worship. According to January 2007 poll by the Catholic World News: 51% Catholic, 31 % agnostic or atheist (other polls give atheists a percentage 27 %), 10 % from other religions or without opinion, 4 % Muslim, 3 % Protesan, and 1 % Jewish.


3.      Transportation
 The railway network of France, which stretches 31, 840 kilometers ( 19,784 mil) is the longest in Western Europe. Operated by the SNCF, and high-speed train include Thalys, the Eurostar and TGV which reach speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph) in commercial use. Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects Great Britain through Tunnel Channel. Rail connections exist to all other neighboring countries in Europe, except Andorra. Inter - urban services are also made ​​with the underground and trams are equipped with the bus service .

4.      French Cuisine
 French cuisine or known Cuisine Francaise is a type of cuisine that originated from the France and various other countries influenced by French culture. French cuisine continues to evolve along with the social and political changes seen as a kind of culinary elegant, colorful, sometimes regional. In addition, it also has been known to be a culinary delicacy which is a complicated group and opposed to master. Raclette is one of the French cuisine.
French cuisine is extremely diverse, and nearly matching variations Chinese cuisine. this is due to the diversity of the French people eat foods that are delicious as well as presenting it in an interesting way. This diversity is also caused by circumstances of geography and climate affect the production of various types of food , as well as a long history of France. said that by studying French cuisine French means understanding itself. because of its diversity, French cuisine awarded as UNESCO World Cultural Heritage on November 16, 2010 in Narobi, Kenya . It was warmly welcomed by Prime Minister Francois Fillion stating that it was the first time a nation's cuisine serve as world heritage .
The French judge important events and enjoy eating their food properly, not with haste. They also enjoy meals outside the home and visited many restaurants, cafes and bistros, where they can drink coffee, smoke, greet a friend or read a newspaper. There are many other places where people can socialize while enjoying French food and beverages, such as :
Brasseries , is the type of place that provides a larger lunch and dinner .
Salons de thé, are stalls serving tea , snacks and pâtisserie.
During the day, usually French people rest up to 2 hours to enjoy lunch, especially in villages and small towns where many workers return to the homes. In some areas, especially in the south, even break is longer. Because of this break, the stores closed beginning at start lunch and open back up at 14:00 and continued to operate until 19.00.
·         Breakfast: Typical French breakfast generally consists of café au lait (coffee with hot milk), hot coffee served in a bowl with a croissant, brioche or toast with jam. Variation could be steak (bifteck) and fries (pommes frites)..
·         Lunch: Lunch at the French called déjeuner. Meals at lunch begins with hors d' oeuvre (appetizers) consisting of a cold dish like strips of bacon, anchovies, olives, and fresh mushrooms marinated in another oil.
·         Dinner:, the menu is almost the same as the lunch menu, but the food is replaced with soup. Opening soup (pot -au - feu) in France is divided into two types, the first form of broth, which second purée. Serving dinner dishes could be more varied than lunch.

5.      Architecture
Technically, there is no architecture named French Architecture, although it was never true. Gothic Architecture's old name was French Architecture (or Opus Francigenum). The term "Gothic" appeared as a stylized form and are used widely. Northern France is home to some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first is the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre- Dame de Chartres and Notre - Dame d' Amiens. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre - Dame de Reims. Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces, the most important one being the Palais des Papes in Avignon.
During the Middle Ages, fortified castles built by feudal nobles to mark their authority against its competitors. When King Philip II seized Rouen from King John, for example, he had to destroy the ducal castle to build a bigger one. Fortified cities were also common, unfortunately most French castles did not survive the passage of time.
Before the appearance of this architecture, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe (with the exception of the Iiberian Peninsula, which use Moorish architecture). Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and the ruins of the Abbey of Cluny (destroyed during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars).
The end of the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy and Spain were invited to the French; castellated residence, Italian design, construction, mainly in the Loire Valley. Some castles were the Château de Chambord residence, the Château de Chenonceau, or the Château d' Amboise. Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, change Gothic architecture Baroqu.
After the Revolution the Republicans worship Neoklasikisme although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with the building like Pantheon Paris or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the French Empire the Arc de Triomphe danSainte Marie - Madeleine represent this trend the best .
Under Napoleon III a new wave of urbanism and architecture. In the 20th century, Swiss Architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. More recently French architects combines modern and old architectural styles. Pyramid Louvreadalah good example of modern architecture added to an older building.

6.      Literature
 French literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages. France does not have a uniform language but was divided into several dialects (mainly: northern oïl, southern oc). Each writer used his own spelling and grammar. Some French mediaeval texts are not marked as Tristan and Iseult, or Lancelot and the Holy Cups, among others. Most mediaeval French poetry and literature were inspired by the Matter of France, such as The Song of Roland and Chansons de geste. "Roman de Renart", written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, and told medieval character Reynard (the Fox), is also a popular example of the French story.

7.      Sport
 Popular sports in France include football, both codes of rugby and in some areas, basketball and handball. France has hosted games such as FIFA World Cup in 1930 and 1998, and the 2007 Rugby Union World Cup. Stade de France in Parisa is the largest stadium in France and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup final, and hosted the 2007 Rugby, World Cup final in October 2007. France also hold annual tour de France, the most famous road bicycle race in the world . France is also famous sports car endurance karenabalap 24 Hours of Le Mans is held in the Sarthe department . Several major tennis tournaments take place in France , including the Paris Masters and the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. France has a close relationship with the Modern Olympic Games.

8.      Marianne
 Marianne is a symbol of the French Republic. He is a figure of liberty and of the Republic and first appeared in French revolution. Marianne initial appearance of a woman wearing a Phrygian cap. Origin of the name Marianne are unknown, but Marie - Anne was a very common first name in the 18th century.

9.       Government
The Government of the French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential Republican with strong democratic traditions. Fifth Republic Constitution was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958. Thereby strengthening the executive power by the executive parlemen. The branches also has two leaders, namely President of the Republic and the Prime Minister is appointed by the President. French parliament is a bicameral legislature consisting of the national assembly and the senate. Senate's legislative powers are limited in terms of the opposition between the two assemblies have the last word. The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.

10.  Economy
 France's economy combines a private company that runs almost 2.5 extensions listed companies to conduct the investment views of dirigsime government declined substantially though. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure structure, firms with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, and telkomunication. It has been gradually relaxing its control since the early 1990s. Government slowly selling off holdings in France Télécom, Air France, as well as the insurance, banking, and defense.

11.  Greetings
For French people say when greeting should be followed by their name, for example Bonjour Doni, then do the shaking hands and making eye contact deeply, often followed by a hug and even kiss.

12.  Gender
Gender roles are not differentiated, both men and women have the same  opportunity. French not stressed to whether a person is male or female, certain positions in countries such as masculine, but refers the ability to analyze, rationalization, logic synthesis thinking, problem solvings.



13.  Dimensions of Culture
France has the characteristics of Universalism vs. Particularism. From this dimension, France classified as moderate, meaning there is a strong Universalism and particularism are not too extreme. French people really prefer to recruit fellow Frenchmen, often they are very subjective in recruiting, but they also do not want to violate the rules say, if a team is not allowed to form a homogeneous, composed of all French people, and if the French people did not meet the required qualifications, they also will not force. So that they can remain accountable for the work of every French person they recruit.

14.  Emotional Dimension
In this dimension, although the French tend to be emotional tidaksetinggi China or Venezuela. They are concerned with both verbal and nonverbal touch. It is common for the French to do touch, deep eyes, shaking hands, or even kissing. No wonder the French are known as the man who is synonymous with romantic up until the French Kiss. Character of the French people is to the point, do not like the strings attached, do not linger long chats that have nothing to do with the business or a specific issue. Result, they often expressed his dissatisfaction towards something or interlocutor is to the point, with no strings attached at all.

15.  Motivation and Leadership
France has a high uncertainty avoidance scores, in which case they always craved a sense of security in their lifes. A French would not mind to work very hard, because according to them, by working hard then they will have a good performance in front of the manager, as well as a chance to get a promotion or a variety of benefits from the company, where everything that can accommodate their desire for the sense of security: financially secure, secure in his position, as well as social status. This is what motivates French to work actively.[3]


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION

France is a country with a high individualism score. Frech are so cold and arrogant. France has many aspecst of cultures, material and immaterial cultures that are very intersting to learn. The aspects are: language, religion, transportation, cuisine, architecture, literature, sport, marianne, government, economy, greetings, gender, dimensions of cultures, emotional dimensions, motivation and leadership.


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