Thursday, 2 October 2014

MAKALAH COLLOCATION

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Collocations are partly or fully fixed expressions that become established through repeated context-dependent use. Such terms as 'crystal clear', 'middle management', 'nuclear family', and 'cosmetic surgery' are examples of collocated pairs of words. Collocations can be in a syntactic relation (such as verb–object: 'make' and 'decision'), lexical relation (such as antonymy), or they can be in no linguistically defined relation. Knowledge of collocations is vital for the competent use of a language: a grammatically correct sentence will stand out as awkward if collocational preferences are violated. This makes collocation an interesting area for language teaching.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A.    COLLOCATION
Collocation is a familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association.[1] In corpus linguistics, collocation defines a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. In phraseology, collocation is a sub-type of phraseme. An example of a phraseological collocation, as propounded by Michael Halliday,[2] is the expression strong tea. While the same meaning could be conveyed by the roughly equivalent *powerful tea, this expression is considered incorrect by English speakers. Conversely, the corresponding expression for computer, powerful computers is preferred over *strong computers. Phraseological collocations should not be confused with idioms, where meaning is derived, whereas collocations are mostly compositional.

B.     IDIOM
1.      Definition:
Idiom is a set expression of two or more words that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words.[3]
2.      Functions of Idioms
·         People use idioms to make their language richer and more colorful and to convey subtle shades of meaning or intention. Idioms are used often to replace a literal word or expression, and many times the idiom better describes the full nuance of meaning. Idioms and idiomatic expressions can be more precise than the literal words, often using fewer words but saying more. For example, the expression it runs in the family is shorter and more succinct than saying that a physical or personality trait 'is fairly common throughout one's extended family and over a number of generations.[4] If natural language had been designed by a logician, idioms would not exist.[5]
·         Idioms, in general, are deeply connected to culture, proposes that biculturalism and bilingualism are two sides of the same coin. Engaged in the intertwined process of culture change, learners have to understand the full meaning of idioms.[6]
·         Levels of "Transparency"
Idioms vary in 'transparency', that is, whether their meaning can be derived from the literal meanings of the individual words. For example, make up [one's] mind is rather transparent in suggesting the meaning 'reach a decision,' while kick the bucket is far from transparent in representing the meaning 'die.[7]

C.    HOMONYM
1.      Definition of Homonym
Etymologically, the word homonym comes from the Greek ὁμώνυμος (homonumos), meaning "having the same name",[8] which is the conjunction of ὁμός (homos), "common, same"[9] and ὄνομα (onoma) meaning "name".[10] Thus, it refers to two or more distinct concepts sharing the "same name" or signifier. Note: for the ‘h’ sound, see rough breathing and smooth breathing. Homonym is two or more words that have the same sound or spelling but differ in meaning.[11] Generally, the term homonym refers both to homophones (words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings, such as which and witch) and to homographs (words that are spelled the same but have different meanings, such as "bow your head" and "tied in a bow").
Note that some dictionaries and textbooks define and distinguish these three terms in different ways. Some equate homonyms only with homophones (words that sound the same). Others equate homonymns only with homographs (words that look the same).[12]
2.      Example of Homonym
The words bow and bough are interesting because there are two meanings associated with a single pronunciation and spelling (the weapon and the knot); there are two meanings with two different pronunciations (the knot and the act of bending at the waist), and there are two distinct meanings sharing the same sound but different spellings (bow, the act of bending at the waist, and bough, the branch of a tree). In addition, it has several related but distinct meanings – a bent line is sometimes called a 'bowed' line, reflecting its similarity to the weapon. Thus, even according to the most restrictive definitions, various pairs of sounds and meanings of bow and bough are homonyms, homographs, homophones, heterophones, heterographs, and are polysemous.
·         bow – a long wooden stick with horse hair that is used to play certain string instruments such as the violin
·         bow – to bend forward at the waist in respect (e.g. "bow down")
·         bow – the front of the ship (e.g. "bow and stern")

D.    POLYSEMI
A polyseme is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. Since the test for polysemy is the vague concept of relatedness, judgments of polysemy can be difficult to make. Because applying pre-existing words to new situations is a natural process of language change, looking at words' etymology is helpful in determining polysemy but not the only solution; as words become lost in etymology, what once was a useful distinction of meaning may no longer be so. Some apparently unrelated words share a common historical origin, however, so etymology is not an infallible test for polysemy, and dictionary writers also often defer to speakers' intuitions to judge polysemy in cases where it contradicts etymology. English has many words which are polysemous. For example the verb "to get" can mean "procure" (I'll get the drinks), "become" (she got scared), "have" (I've got three dollars), "understand" (I get it) etc.[13] Polysemi is flexible Patterns of Meaning in Mind and Language,[14] The association of one word with two or more distinct meanings. A polyseme is a word or phrase with multiple meanings. Etymologically, Polysemi came from the Greek means "many signs". Polysemy is a pivotal concept within disciplines such as media studies and linguistics.




E.     LEXICAL RELATION
A lexical relation is a culturally recognized pattern of association that exists between lexical units in a language.[15]
Lexical relation
Example set
Underlying structure
synonym
A "happy" synonym set: {happy, joyful, glad}
simple set
measurement
A "temperature" set: {cold, cool, lukewarm, warm, hot}
scale
opposite
A "social relation" set: {(student, teacher), (patient, doctor)}
set of pairs
generic-specific whole-part
A "whole-part" tree:
·  house
·  ·  roof
·  walls
·  floor
tree


CHAPTER III
CONCLUSION
Collocation is a familiar grouping of words, especially words that habitually appear together and thereby convey meaning by association. Idiom is a set expression of two or more words that means something other than the literal meanings of its individual words. Homonym is two or more words that have the same sound or spelling but differ in meaning. A polyseme is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. A lexical relation is a culturally recognized pattern of association that exists between lexical units in a language.

 REFERENCES

  Douglas Biber et al., Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Pearson, 2002.
  Gail Brenner, Webster's New World American Idioms Handbook. Webster's New World, 2003.
  Halliday, M.A.K., 'Lexis as a Linguistic Level', Journal of Linguistics 2(1) 1966: 57-67
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collocation Thursday, 14th March, 2013.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homonym Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysemy Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
  http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/idiomterm.htm Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
 http://www-01.sil.org/linguistics/glossaryOflinguisticTerms/WhatIsALexicalRelation.htm Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
  James B. Hobbs , An American Dictionary, 4th ed, McFarland & Company, 2006.
  Philip Johnson-Laird, 1993.
  Sam Glucksberg, Understanding Figurative Language. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.
  Walter de Gruyter, 2003.
  ὁμός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  ὁμώνυμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library.
  ὄνομα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library




[1]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collocation Thursday, 14th March, 2013.
[2] Halliday, M.A.K., 'Lexis as a Linguistic Level', Journal of Linguistics 2(1) 1966: 57-67.
[4] Gail Brenner, Webster's New World American Idioms Handbook. Webster's New World, 2003.
[5] Philip Johnson-Laird, 1993.
[6] Sam Glucksberg, Understanding Figurative Language. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.
[7] Douglas Biber et al., Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Pearson, 2002.
[8] ὁμώνυμος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library.
[9] ὁμός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
[10] ὄνομα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
[11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homonym Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
[12] James B. Hobbs , An American Dictionary, 4th ed, McFarland & Company, 2006.
[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysemy Wednesday, 13th March, 2013.
[14] Walter de Gruyter, 2003.

0 comments:

Post a Comment

sealkazzsoftware.blogspot.com resepkuekeringku.com