Thursday, 2 October 2014

MAKALAH ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.    Problem Background
 English is the language used by almost every person in the world. at the present time, learning English is very important. English language is not only used to talk to the west, but has become a requirement to enter the world of work. children in schools in Asian countries, must learn English. There is so much discussion in English. but that will be discussed in this paper is about the adjective clause. Adjective clause is a very important discussion because it is very often used both in conversation especially in the writing of English. in this paper, I will attempt to explain a little about the adjective clause.

B.     Problem Formulation
1.      What is the definition of adjective clause?
2.      What  are types of adjective clause?
3.      How is the usual patterns of adjective clauses?
4.      How to use adjective clause?
5.      How is the position of adjective clause?

C.    Writing Purpose
To fulfill Grammar task.

D.    Writing methods
1. Fetching data from literature sources.
2. Looking for material from the internet


CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A.    DEFENITION OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Adjective clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and Predicate of its own, and does the work of an adjective.[1] Adjective clauses can be reduced to adjective phrases under certain grammatical conditions.  In the examples below, you will see a noun modified by an adjective clause and then an example of the same noun modified by the shorter adjective phrase.  The red dots indicate that the main clause is incomplete as you are focusing only on clause-to-phrase reduction in these examples.  For such reductions to occur, the relative pronoun must be a subject pronoun in all cases.

Grammatical Condition
Clause
Phrase
Verb in adjective clause is an active verb
People who live in large cities...
people living in large cities...
Verb in adjective clause is progressive
Students who are studying at urban campuses...
Students studying at urban campuses...
Verb in adjective clause is passive
Children who are born with congenital heart disease...
Children born with congenital heart disease... (the preferred style)
Adj. clause has the verb be + adjective + infinitive complement
Children who are most likely to recover from serious illness...
Children most likely to recover from serious illness...
Adj. clause has another name for the modified noun (an appositive)
Dr. Francisco Ramirez, who is chief pediatric surgeon at Children's Hospital,...
Dr. Francisco Ramirez, chief pediatric surgeon at Children's Hospital,... the appositive phrase is preferred style and is non-restrictive.

Relative pronoun use who subject or object pronoun for people which subject or object pronoun for animals and things which referring to a whole sentence whose possession for people animals and things whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible).

relative pronoun
use
who
subject or object pronoun for people
which
subject or object pronoun for animals and things
which
referring to a whole sentence
whose
possession for people animals and things
whom
object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)
that
subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)


B.     TYPE OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
An adjective clause may be classified according to the antecedent[2] that the introductory word refers to.
Noun Antecedent
 Meaning
Introductory Word
Illustrative Sentence
A person















A thing
(1)   Relative Pronoun:
Who (whom or whose) or that













Which or that
·      Subject-He paid the money to the man who (or that) had done the work.
·      Object of verb-He paid the man whom (or that) he had hired.
·      Object of Preposition-He paid the man from whom he had borrowed the money.
·      Possesive adjective-This is the girl whose picture you saw.


§  Subject-Here is a book which (or that) describes animals.
§  Object of verb-The chair which (or that) he broke is being repaired.
§  Object of preposition-She was wearing the coat for which she had paid $2,000.


A time

A place

A reason
(2)   Relative Adverb:
When

Where

Why

This is the year when the Olympic Games are held.
Here is the house where I live.
Give me one good reason why you did that.[3]


C.    USUAL PATTERNS OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

S + Be/V + N/Pronoun

Adjective Clause

Relative Pronoun + S + V

Example:
v  A pilot is a person who flies an air plane.
v  This is the picture that I like very much.
v  An expert is a person who has special knowledge in one area.
v  I have just met the girl whose car is Mitsubishi.
v  Lucia wears suit which cost US $ 250.
v  That is the place where the victim was found.
v  The man whose hause is blue works for PT. EXXON MOBILE.
v  This is the girl whom the car belong to will be sold.
v  This was the month when I was born.[4]
v  Students who are intelligent understand adjectives.
v  I love sentences which extol the virtues of English teachers.
v  Students whom I admire want to become English teachers.
v  My English teacher, who wears old fashioned ties, is laughed at by the      students.
v    My English book, which is a monument of boredom, is used mainly as a door stop.
(a) USUAL: I like the people who live next to me.
 LESS USUAL: I like the people that live next to me.
In everyday informal usage, often one adjective clause pattern is used more commonly than another. In (a): As subject pronoun, who is more common than that.
(b)     USUAL: I like books that have good plots.
LESS USUAL: I like books which have good   plots.
In (b): As a subject pronoun, that is more common than which.
(c)      USUAL: I like the people I met last night.
(d)     USUAL: I like the book I read last night.
In (c) and (d): Object pronouns are commonly omitted, especially in speaking.

D.    USING ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
1.    Using Whose

                             I know the man
                             His bicycle was stolen.
                                                 ↓
(a)      I know the man whose bicycle was stoles


                           The student writes well
                           I read her composition
                                       ↓
(b)     The student whose composition I read writes well.

Whose is used to show possession. It carries the same meaning as other possessive pronouns used as adjectives: his, her, its, and their. Like his, her, its, and their, whose is connected to a noun:
     His bicycle → whose bicycle
     Her composition → whose composition

Both whose and the noun it is connected to are placed at the beginning of the adjective clause. Whose cannot be omitted.
                       Mr. Catt has a painting.
                       Its value is inestimable.
                   
(c)      Mr, Chatt has a painting whose value is inestimable.
Whose usually modifies people, but it may also be used to modify things, as in (c).


2.    Using Where
The building is very old.
He lives there (in that building)

(a)      The building where he lives is very old.
(b)     The building in which he lives is very old.
(c)      The building which he lives in is very old.
(d)     The building that he lives in is very old.
(e)      The building he lives in is very old.
Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place (city, country, room, house, etc.).
If where is used, a preposition in NOT included in the adjective clause, as in (a). If where is not used, the preposition must be included, as in (b).

3.    Using When
I’ll never forget the day.
I met you then (on that day).

(a)      I’ll never forget the day when
I met you.
(b)     I’ll never forget the day on which
I met you.
(c)      I’ll never forget the day that
I met you.
(d)     I’ll never forget the day I met you.

When is used in an adjective clause to modify a noun of time (year, day, time, century, etc.).
The use of a preposition in an adjective clause that modifies a noun of time is somewhat different from yhat in order adjective clauses: a preposition is used preceding which, as in (b). Otherwise, the preposition is omitted.



4.    Using Adjective Clauses to Modify Pronouns
(a)      There is someone (whom) I want you to meet.
(b)     Everything he said was pure nonsense.
(c)      Anybody who wants to come is welcome.
Adjective clauses can modify indefinite pronouns (e.g., someone, everything, everybody). Object pronouns (e.g., who(m), that, which) are usually omitted in the adjective clause.
(d)     Paula was the only one I knew at the party.
(e)      Scholarship are available for those who need financial assitance.
Adjective clauses can modify the one(s) and those.
(f)      INCORRECT: I who am student at this school come from a country in Asia.
(g)     It is I who am responsible.
(h)     He who laughs last laughs best.


Adjective clauses are almost never used to modify personal pronouns. Native speakers would not write the sentence in (f). (g) is possible, but very formal and uncommon. (h) si awell-known saying in which he is used as an indefinite pronoun (meaning “anyone,” “any person”.[5]

5.        Using Subject Pronouns: Who, Which, That
Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Subject Pronouns: "Who", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause
Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. He runs a successful business.
I will introduce you to a friend who runs a successful business.
I will introduce you to a friend that runs a successful business.
The book is about religion. It has raised controversy.
The book which has raised controversy is about religion.
The book that has raised controversy is about religion.

• "Who", "which" or "that" is the subject of the adjective clause.
• "Who" is used to change the form of the subject.
• "Which" is used to change the subject in the form of objects.
• "That" is used to change the form of the subject and the object, and is more commonly used than "which". However, "that" can only be used in defining relative clause only. (Read MenggunakanAdjectiveClause Combining Sentences (Relative Clause).

6.  Using Object Pronouns: Who(m), Which, That
Adjective Clause / Relative Clause with Object Pronouns: "Who(m)", "Which", "That"
Without adjective clause / relative clause
Using adjective clause / relative clause
I will introduce you to a friend. You have never met him before.
I will introduce you to a friend (who(m)) you have never met before.
I will introduce you to a friend (that) you have never met before.
The book is about religion. I bought it in Gramedia bookstore last week.
The book (which) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The book (that) I bought in Gramedia bookstore last week is about religion.
The song was very popular in 1990's. I am listening to it.
The song to which I am listening was very popular in 1990's.
The song (which) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.
The song (that) I am listening to was very popular in 1990's.

• "Whom" is used to change the form of the object, commonly used in formal English. For an informal and conversational English, "who" is used more often replace "Whom".
• "Which" is used to replace an object in the form of objects.
• "That" is used to change the form of the object or objects, and is more commonly used than "which". However, "that" can only be used in defining relative clause only. (Read Combining Sentences Using Adjective Clause (Relative Clause).
• In conversational English (oral), "who", "which" or "that" is often omitted.

E.     POSITION OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES
The normal position of an adjective clause is immeditelyafter the noun or pronoun to which it refers. However, sometimes a prepositional a participal phrase may intervene-He greetedall his old friends from Paris, who were delighted to see him again. Where such a phrase intervenes, the antecedent of the adjective clause may be ambiguous. For example, in the sentence The Dean wrote to the parents of the students who had helped with the annual carnival, it is not clear whether the antecedent of who is the parents or the students.
Occasionally an adjective clause referring to the subject comes after the verb, especially when the antecedent is a pronoun-Everyone came who could afford the price of the ticket. Such a construction may have a literary or even an archaic flavor:
All’s well that ends well (Shakespeare)
He prayeth best who loveth best (Coleridge)[6]



CHAPTER III
CLOSING
A.    Conclucion
Adjective clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and Predicate of its own, and does the work of an adjective. Adjective clauses can be reduced to adjective phrases under certain grammatical conditions.  In the examples below, you will see a noun modified by an adjective clause and then an example of the same noun modified by the shorter adjective phrase.  The red dots indicate that the main clause is incomplete as you are focusing only on clause-to-phrase reduction in these examples.  For such reductions to occur, the relative pronoun must be a subject pronoun in all cases.
Conjunction between one another clause in the adjective clause are:
1. Who
Its function is to replace the subject (Person)
Example: - This works very diligently Manager who is my brother
`- This Man who lives next to me is very friendly
2. Whom
Its function is to describe the object (person)
Example: - This Man Whom I met is very friendly
- The Lady Whom I met the party last night is our secretary
3. Whose
Functions adalahberhubungan ownership
Example: - The Man Whose car stolen called the police
- The secretary Whose bag is red entered the seminar room
4. Which
Its function is used for objects, either in subject or object position.
Example: - The laser printer roomates I saw at the exibilition last night is very expensive. - The computer executes the roomates the program is very expensive very fast

B.     Suggestion
 As English University student, we have to always concern and develop our knowledge about English, especially in Adjective Clause.




[1] Wren and Martin, High School English Grammer and Composition, (Malaysia: Crescent Press, 1989).
[2] The adjective clause modifies a preceding noun or pronoun. Te noun or pronoun being modified is called the antecedent.
[3] Marcella Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide, (United States Of America: Prentie Hall, 1972), p. 276-277.
[4] Stace Witney Wright, Toefl Super Lengkap, (Yogyakarta: Kalarana Press, 2012).
[5] Betty Schramptfer Azar, English Grammar Third Edition, International Edition, (United States of America: Longman, 1999), p.270-278.
[6] Marcella,
a Frank, Op. Cit.p. 280.

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